This stained glass sweet chemistry exercise mixes historical past, science, and artwork. College students will observe a sugar, water, and corn syrup combination reworked right into a molten, amorphous substance.
There’s a lot chemistry occurring with this exercise that it’s acceptable for elementary via highschool. In the event you’re finding out the states of matter, mixtures, or the chemistry of sugar, this can make an fascinating addition.
However one of the best half is the stained glass artwork challenge with the cooled combination. Add in an artwork research (some hyperlinks are offered under) and switch this science challenge right into a STEAM exercise!
Historical past of Stained Glass
The usage of stained glass, in a technique or one other, goes again to historic instances. The Stained Glass Affiliation of America has an fascinating write-up in regards to the historical past of stained glass. The earliest identified use of glass beads goes again to historic Egypt between 2750 and 2625 BC.
Stained glass home windows grew to become very talked-about within the Center Ages. Between 1194 and 1220, the Chartres Cathedral in France was constructed and is without doubt one of the most well-known examples of the early use of stained glass in a constructing.
This is without doubt one of the sections of stained glass from Chartres Cathedral.
How Glass and Stained Glass are Made
Glass is constituted of melting silica at extraordinarily excessive temperatures, then letting it cool.
The silica is heated to a molten state, after which traces of steel oxides or metals are added to the silica so as to add shade to the glass.
This is a superb demonstration of how glass is manufactured.
The Chemistry of Making Sweet Glass
We use desk sugar, corn syrup, and water on this sweet glass exercise.
Corn syrup is made from starch, extra particularly, glucose. Desk sugar is granules of sucrose crystals.
You would possibly need to have your baby stir a tablespoon of sugar right into a half cup of water? What occurs? (The sugar dissolves.)
What this implies is that the sucrose granules turn out to be extra soluble in water. When the water is heated, the sugar’s capability to dissolve will increase, so extra sugar can dissolve sooner in sizzling water than in chilly water. You possibly can check this by stirring the identical quantity of sugar into very popular water and chilly water cup.
We are going to boil desk sugar, corn syrup, and water on this exercise. The water will start to evaporate, and this combination will turn out to be molten.
Discover how the sugar went from a stable state to a molten state. What occurs when it cools? This can be a query to ask your pupil; what do they suppose will occur. (It’ll cool and turn out to be stable.)
If we didn’t have the corn starch current, the sugar would start to crystallize. However, the corn syrup, which is a starch made from glucose, begins to interrupt aside as its heated. The glucose molecules transfer in between the sucrose molecules. This helps stop the sugar combination from crystalizing.
Please observe that the combination turns into unstable as soon as the water has evaporated and the sucrose sugar and corn syrup are heated. When it reaches 300 levels on the sweet thermometer, we’ll take away the combination from the warmth.
The combination is now amorphous and is an instance of molten glass. It has no form. Level this out to your pupil as you pour the combination out onto the foil. Amorphous means it doesn’t tackle a clearly outlined form.
Pour the combination very rigorously from the pot to the bowls so as to add the meals coloring. Then, you’ll pour it onto the foil-lined baking sheets.
That is the place it’s essential be tremendous cautious as you combine within the meals coloring and pour out the combination. You’ll discover the way it bubbles in the event you pour a few of the combination right into a bowl so as to add in coloring earlier than pouring it out to harden on the foil.
As soon as the combination cools, it’s again to a stable.
The sugar started as stable sugar crystals, then dissolved within the water; subsequent, the combination grew to become molten, then cooled again to a stable.
Assets Earlier than Getting Began
As you get began with this exercise, listed below are some assets of curiosity.
- If doing this exercise with 8-12th graders, the American Chemical Society has a really detailed rationalization of what’s occurring on a molecular degree. https://www.acs.org/content material/acs/en/schooling/assets/highschool/chemmatters/past-issues/archive-2014-2015/candymaking.html
- Video rationalization of how glass is made – YouTube video
- An exquisite video displaying how a stained glass window is made
After we made our glass sweet, I poured half of the molten combination right into a glass measuring cup, added pink meals coloring drops to it. Then, added yellow meals coloring to the combination nonetheless within the pot.
In the event you plan to make one shade glass per batch, then add the meals coloring instantly into the pan.
It’s crucial to notice that the combination is super-heated and unstable. When splitting the combination to make completely different colours, the combination will bubble and “boil.” So, please use warning.
Grownup supervision required.
Cowl the foil pan or cookie sheet with foil. You possibly can spray it with acooking spray. We didn’t, and didn’t have an issue with the sweet sticking.However, you would possibly need to use the spray!
Decide if you’re making one batch and splitting it to have two colours orif you’ll make a number of batches of differing colours.In case you are splitting this batch into two colours, have an additional glass measuring cup or bowl useful with a spoon. You will have to maneuver rapidly to paint the combination earlier than pouring it out on the foil to chill and harden.
Measure 2 cups of sugar and place it in a saucepan.
Add ½ cup of water
Add ½ cup of clear corn syrup
Add ½ cup of corn syrup to the pan
Boil the water, sugar, and corn syrup combination for about 15 to twenty minutes till the sweet thermometer reaches 300 levels F.
In case your thermometer will clip onto the aspect of the pan, then achieve this. We used a set of tongs to carry the thermometer.
Stir sometimes. Because the combination reaches 300 levels, discuss in regards to the molten state of the combination. The sugar went from sugar crystals dissolving within the water to getting molten because the water evaporated.
When the combination reaches 300 levels F, take away it from the warmth.
Colour the combination. Please watch out in the event you pour a part of the combination right into a separate glass bowl or measuring cup to create a second shade. You’ll have to work quick. This does harden rapidly.
Rigorously pour the combination onto the foil and let cool.
After 2 hours, take the foil pans, hammer or mallet, and security goggles exterior.
Placed on the protection goggles and really calmly faucet the sweet “glass” with the hammer.You don’t need to smash it an excessive amount of. You do need items that can be utilized to make a stained class image or window.
Prepare the stained glass sweet on the plastic from the image body. Utilizing this difficult plastic piece makes it simpler to choose up items and transfer them.
We made a flower stained glass image and a mountain vary 🙂
With just a few easy elements, this exercise helps college students see how warmth modifications a stable right into a liquid, then a molten susbtance, which then cools and turns into a stable once more.