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New in 13: Cryptography, Blockchains & NFTs


Two years in the past we launched Model 12.0 of the Wolfram Language. Listed here are the updates in cryptography, blockchains and NFTs since then, together with the newest options in 13.0. The contents of this publish are compiled from Stephen Wolfram’s Launch Bulletins for 12.1, 12.2, 12.3 and 13.0.

 

Cryptography & Safety (December 2020)

One of many issues we need to do with Wolfram Language is to make it as straightforward as doable to attach with just about any exterior system. And in fashionable occasions an vital a part of that’s having the ability to conveniently deal with cryptographic protocols. And ever since we began introducing cryptography instantly into the Wolfram Language 5 years in the past, I’ve been stunned at simply how a lot the symbolic character of the Wolfram Language has allowed us to make clear and streamline issues to do with cryptography.

A very dramatic instance of this has been how we’ve been in a position to combine blockchains into Wolfram Language (and Model 12.2 provides bloxberg with a number of extra on the way in which). And in successive variations we’re dealing with completely different purposes of cryptography. In Model 12.2 a significant emphasis is symbolic capabilities for key administration. Model 12.1 already launched SystemCredential for coping with native “keychain” key administration (supporting, for instance, “keep in mind me” in authentication dialogs). In 12.2 we’re additionally coping with PEM recordsdata.

If we import a PEM file containing a personal key we get a pleasant, symbolic illustration of the non-public key:

private = First
&#10005

non-public = First[Import["ExampleData/privatesecp256k1.pem"]]

Now we are able to derive a public key:

public = PublicKey
&#10005

public = PublicKey[%]

If we generate a digital signature for a message utilizing the non-public key

GenerateDigitalSignature
&#10005

GenerateDigitalSignature["Hello there", private]

then this verifies the signature utilizing the general public key we’ve derived:

VerifyDigitalSignature
&#10005

VerifyDigitalSignature[{"Hello there", %}, public]

An vital a part of fashionable safety infrastructure is the idea of a safety certificates—a digital assemble that enables a 3rd get together to attest to the authenticity of a selected public key. In Model 12.2 we now have a symbolic illustration for safety certificates—offering what’s wanted for applications to determine safe communication channels with exterior entities in the identical type of approach that https does:

Import
&#10005

Import["ExampleData/client.pem"]

Blockchain, Storage, Authentication & Cryptography (Could 2021)

We first launched blockchain performance into Wolfram Language in Model 11.3 (2018), and in every successive model we’re including increasingly blockchain integration. Model 12.3 provides connectivity to the Tezos blockchain:

&#10005

BlockchainBlockData[-1, BlockchainBase -> "Tezos"]

&#10005

<|"BlockHash" -> 
  "BKp9B8Z4zNpMDeSaFe2ZU6tywVUhady46Jji1oizxkRc4WGwpkf", 
 "BlockNumber" -> 1460305, 
 "PreviousBlockHash" -> 
  "BL8qGr1awP9RdeCMRExVvyiVadHJvzo9AJGMTfwnWEZDh8BAZf1", 
 "Protocol" -> "PtEdo2ZkT9oKpimTah6x2embF25oss54njMuPzkJTEi5RqfdZFA", 
 "NextProtocol" -> 
  "PtEdo2ZkT9oKpimTah6x2embF25oss54njMuPzkJTEi5RqfdZFA", 
 "Timestamp" -> 
  DateObject[{2021, 5, 6, 15, 23, 25.`}, "Instant", 
   "Gregorian", -4.`], "ValidationPass" -> 4, 
 "OperationsHash" -> 
  "LLoatzgmfL7B8dz5tdJu6RncRTXmPSBHxNpwbAuKyNc4daJw21m9V", 
 "Health" -> {"01", "00000000000c4851"}, 
 "ContextHash" -> 
  "CoVdfkgRAo5QFd5iqhoKX34s4KcaZSTgSee7TsPwmCFaLch7TSnu", 
 "Precedence" -> 0, "Nonce" -> "cbbfffdbf95d0300", 
 "Signature" -> DigitalSignature[
Association[
   "Type" -> "EllipticCurve", "CurveName" -> "prime256v1", "R" -> 
    ByteArray[{63, 206, 128, 26, 8, 98, 13, 127, 155, 77, 28, 109, 
      127, 131, 181, 72, 12, 233, 255, 113, 50, 41, 68, 60, 176, 134, 
      219, 28, 96, 233, 234, 145}], "S" -> 
    ByteArray[{203, 169, 245, 106, 175, 234, 118, 156, 176, 232, 249, 
      67, 153, 193, 64, 177, 95, 75, 47, 32, 23, 90, 41, 184, 8, 242, 
      92, 126, 135, 75, 109, 18}], "SignatureType" -> "Deterministic",
     "HashingMethod" -> None]], Sequence[
 "ConsumedGas" -> 791549625, "Baker" -> 
  "tz3RB4aoyjov4KEVRbuhvQ1CKJgBJMWhaeB8", "BlockReward" -> 
  Quantity[40000000, "Mutez"], "BlockFees" -> 
  Amount[452892, "Mutez"], "TotalTransactions" -> 61, 
  "TransactionList" -> {
   "op6VomseCtH7rizEpty4e1kATAP2wZ95Zc2TnciUHgHDxsjAks4", 
    "opTjVuymKZuSgAvLq7QzfAn6pqgSJzFyYQx2ZYKA8J9AKYjGbUE", 
    "opNNDhSkp2j1s9MNyaH7nW4T8gREpPnDN7zPwnoxS2Q74EzRJYS", 
    "op9Sy24XKKJxwJ1UyBZ4didiyi6TtgDj2rMstCnYmPs9MLyCGra", 
    "oozW8QwRnGvde4yqf1P4xM99Nzb5o1tg4RHRJg3uVEWjYVG1Afw", 
    "op6EFngrBovURGURpKNsbz22r5bcRPaM4XbYCarStWG25X2kuJH", 
    "ooFkZjFM33UjXDLvkhkD1SNUguh8rnnLfmwFefS7YWNR2tCpfVA", 
    "onqdtnVexw5jsxy4P1FTbYRwBcNH1DrppjWgryCv32qqqw1Y7aP", 
    "ooCgPPZi75TbErNqUEpptUvx6mU9T8B1DCsaU4eJYtbrishZqGw", 
    "onudTXp25r5Zf2aZyMMKUAAFzqVQX24jwPNCN2TFPVQEA6hiEMk", 
    "op8eRJ5T3yMLDSzSbH4EA1VpA91VaMECCy6uGASfE1aNVWuu8tb", 
    "onpbU1aussshJatN8xfvqFWn3hNuDUZRD8SSem1XMrkcnnkRPwR", 
    "onwvab7jYybdAX8fmG7ntMXVgQoT1UXi8hHJDiuMu9DmHT7hsDV", 
    "ooPqN4ejaPjbuvn9aoGUzdj7Jb68Sp3CT4WV6ysvrvdEhSjw11u", 
    "oo9YcyDUZiJN5r6nTtr5uU2d6WgFuxby8zygjNbFUAkMbcq2Kkc", 
    "oojLDHmjFXpgcEdLrtu1ri5fkYyMLcxZVw4jxF2TZ3f7ELFkkwu", 
    "oo5znRzP43gSP5TKwaBHD96zkt4xw3QfRqEXFiXAEuUxTn9SDeL", 
    "ooqYjZ6boQBtVxRsBqrHxB9vmJRFkPAYysR2iaXigEQ6NepgDiV", 
    "ooETrujpf9SuB5ErLheg653puC7NEKA1DFLEZHttEBMVa7HaNJa", 
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    "onijR1dKbGM1zR9dAbasxactqGQC4z6J6b4Uzrccy4vAnCD4Fn7", 
    "opTZK85vLQoU91TwLGvcCjFCKWeWbTxJEus4rYv2SgF97eHRZE5", 
    "opTZK85vLQoU91TwLGvcCjFCKWeWbTxJEus4rYv2SgF97eHRZE5", 
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    "opTZK85vLQoU91TwLGvcCjFCKWeWbTxJEus4rYv2SgF97eHRZE5", 
    "onyUVr21aiaYCL8cQFSZ8S7iMtu3qKRmycWAMwrUELJ6Y8UWkr5", 
    "op2ZjLMAGz9N8uMwDF1eUt4SwPviLHvGEHLukB88vWVTkx4daT7", 
    "onpABZgtFEYCNQNJPDNX56M4UEbyekKY9NibBQw9x11KTqiaCbE", 
    "oogML3KCzAZZE1aaagcpXwfoa9R7zqdiiQHC9LT5j6ZcnsfY6P7", 
    "opPWXEj2p6MHCGfon4nZGVnG3zBXWY2CZtYVRRjVNDBvQPLxnUU", 
    "ooq8gZ1nKE5AqHuJYCjqEMkbYHgK2SDs9T2SZXDkJAZ196RKiBS", 
    "onqJPSCfU3BRzLesTnHHrbQn1FLAGpRCi7TRtxxiHbip9iHMWbU", 
    "onwg53FYDrfnnya3saqbrAEZUbnpTruMPTpqoKVuRazsf1Viwk5", 
    "onhFQfHozg6342FWHmneswFZRdoEuwvtfhmcpQQg1U9FsginVJv", 
    "opTn7nNd5vUBsex4a2bfR3RrZjUmkMeiAWEDttrrSEF3T1dGNZm", 
    "ooWkoM9xWNAd8EqbETpr1k5fEAuiQt598ugmLM54ZVNxjCbtGbp", 
    "oogDaA91FQsyYy3P9kYcJjS3ujmpHb94JGgjA6HpPSkPzgpB15H", 
    "ooaQLZaBXPXTe6aafhe96naZBGcoZi11FbzMhn385FseNEem2xF", 
    "opL6WmqQuWGyN9cNSmCwD8Ma6MV4Ts9So85WgcWp5Ky5tJkmLmh", 
    "ootzhwxQhEwnvrxzTeBWErHdC5m7BRzTfwDa2pSpaSkvRAwzU5K", 
    "oosyhGiANK4fZxc7hZ2j3NVUNiaTXQDPTKPK4GENmL8fNbqUsvB", 
    "ooLh1CUUtYveZTsG3GeA5rHmbsx9nQFTz9ynHGaEgJoC6dJYnti", 
    "oo5qw19WGmppfrnJZLyeRULUsAfjnffaQSLTqUHfLvKpXR3MqYd", 
    "onpj8MabGeVVHM4SkFewBuTzh7ZCzaS5nAHXzrzNCVtSEw2XzuX", 
    "ong2v5BqSaqatFHaxszrGydxBD12d5nURnXHHVwaijpvRow84Af", 
    "opW8UBt6o18DYbtoRX9zJQtzyD8jgU4y3siQpezuHUHCKFwNU7C", 
    "onojr4LVUpN9wCuLsBx3zTvAm7BFiaX6UuQPam6S2GgrQnD4c5Z", 
    "op2QbyAJAMc2XYEksdMKvEUgYgLV2gKUqbXahUjDUeruvixepqT", 
    "opWUQsURSggjD9fcSFvRipqfcCeWgZUt3sSNzNwEs59iu7uGdH3", 
    "onwfFre2mrardqbuM2UE8vJpF9H2hFWZorsPgNgak865KTJEF4k", 
    "opYvNapz6ofynufp1nkr1rRHwM3zS3Zt6ej3byMDPC5HR6hoB4a", 
    "ooRgJQGMHvbVtQkCpC1SoJRz4rCkWxoXFStBxARH5dAVYdnYKFn", 
    "oooFkkTvXw4geySWJbsnyGtv7uWSUCfZikqobG6VcFwXPqV41R9", 
    "oosNr1vxSqq2CJtBx6w89JMwBQykN1eCZjRRMhcVBBYQB1e13iq", 
    "opTmRk498HdVZ9QQxMPRVbrastMCZmYTgZS7A6p8xK2J9Sh8J26", 
    "ooB3dC8hsr9ZXNDVHD6KtAkDKEke2UxS8BfmijiT3eWDYynWiuh", 
    "onpQSBSjVeSx1zRpFhcwCGmhhawy2Za6ur18RoSqTFKcFEFWmpg"}, 
  "TransactionListDetails" -> 
  Affiliation[
   "Endorsement" -> {
     "op6VomseCtH7rizEpty4e1kATAP2wZ95Zc2TnciUHgHDxsjAks4", 
      "opTjVuymKZuSgAvLq7QzfAn6pqgSJzFyYQx2ZYKA8J9AKYjGbUE", 
      "opNNDhSkp2j1s9MNyaH7nW4T8gREpPnDN7zPwnoxS2Q74EzRJYS", 
      "op9Sy24XKKJxwJ1UyBZ4didiyi6TtgDj2rMstCnYmPs9MLyCGra", 
      "oozW8QwRnGvde4yqf1P4xM99Nzb5o1tg4RHRJg3uVEWjYVG1Afw", 
      "op6EFngrBovURGURpKNsbz22r5bcRPaM4XbYCarStWG25X2kuJH", 
      "ooFkZjFM33UjXDLvkhkD1SNUguh8rnnLfmwFefS7YWNR2tCpfVA", 
      "onqdtnVexw5jsxy4P1FTbYRwBcNH1DrppjWgryCv32qqqw1Y7aP", 
      "ooCgPPZi75TbErNqUEpptUvx6mU9T8B1DCsaU4eJYtbrishZqGw", 
      "onudTXp25r5Zf2aZyMMKUAAFzqVQX24jwPNCN2TFPVQEA6hiEMk", 
      "op8eRJ5T3yMLDSzSbH4EA1VpA91VaMECCy6uGASfE1aNVWuu8tb", 
      "onpbU1aussshJatN8xfvqFWn3hNuDUZRD8SSem1XMrkcnnkRPwR", 
      "onwvab7jYybdAX8fmG7ntMXVgQoT1UXi8hHJDiuMu9DmHT7hsDV", 
      "ooPqN4ejaPjbuvn9aoGUzdj7Jb68Sp3CT4WV6ysvrvdEhSjw11u", 
      "oo9YcyDUZiJN5r6nTtr5uU2d6WgFuxby8zygjNbFUAkMbcq2Kkc", 
      "oojLDHmjFXpgcEdLrtu1ri5fkYyMLcxZVw4jxF2TZ3f7ELFkkwu", 
      "oo5znRzP43gSP5TKwaBHD96zkt4xw3QfRqEXFiXAEuUxTn9SDeL", 
      "ooqYjZ6boQBtVxRsBqrHxB9vmJRFkPAYysR2iaXigEQ6NepgDiV", 
      "ooETrujpf9SuB5ErLheg653puC7NEKA1DFLEZHttEBMVa7HaNJa", 
      "opAHbY3xtTUhekjv8Kgzvv6GS1uK3S4Arz5ygJiEVRZu8hSv7Vi", 
      "oodaSNWZfzyUHXa94pJ9vohwZS4FbEmtuZgMZnwf9WJ2mqkDcTW"}, 
    "Reveal" -> {
     "oouk2fBfhWPirfcNzdxXKxhDtnyMnvK65hD1MnHPApFuesFuuMt", 
      "opRcK6KBE1Y79GyGzmYsqRPZntxsV1A2gRK4iVZ91x573H1nTRp", 
      "opZVSQx9cVe4rxAv81eurea9GisjyFJc9DdKEiPSpgCB8aUtHG9", 
      "oogML3KCzAZZE1aaagcpXwfoa9R7zqdiiQHC9LT5j6ZcnsfY6P7"}, 
    "Delegation" -> {
     "oouk2fBfhWPirfcNzdxXKxhDtnyMnvK65hD1MnHPApFuesFuuMt", 
      "opRcK6KBE1Y79GyGzmYsqRPZntxsV1A2gRK4iVZ91x573H1nTRp", 
      "opZVSQx9cVe4rxAv81eurea9GisjyFJc9DdKEiPSpgCB8aUtHG9", 
      "onvdAawno4HEbLJhS1St7j3RFaCi7rDZSeAzC1DM7Cafs1EadMJ"}, 
    "Transaction" -> {
     "onqyJ3Cin5sxuWPvZgcVqXqBeTNFijkthcrz5bS4U8ATwhzodHK", 
      "op2hL6BVZg6y8zzQKQWzk5Bxs8Cr89QCSocFaYoNTVPvAXnQ4Hu", 
      "onijR1dKbGM1zR9dAbasxactqGQC4z6J6b4Uzrccy4vAnCD4Fn7", 
      "opTZK85vLQoU91TwLGvcCjFCKWeWbTxJEus4rYv2SgF97eHRZE5", 
      "opTZK85vLQoU91TwLGvcCjFCKWeWbTxJEus4rYv2SgF97eHRZE5", 
      "opTZK85vLQoU91TwLGvcCjFCKWeWbTxJEus4rYv2SgF97eHRZE5", 
      "opTZK85vLQoU91TwLGvcCjFCKWeWbTxJEus4rYv2SgF97eHRZE5", 
      "onyUVr21aiaYCL8cQFSZ8S7iMtu3qKRmycWAMwrUELJ6Y8UWkr5", 
      "op2ZjLMAGz9N8uMwDF1eUt4SwPviLHvGEHLukB88vWVTkx4daT7", 
      "onpABZgtFEYCNQNJPDNX56M4UEbyekKY9NibBQw9x11KTqiaCbE", 
      "oogML3KCzAZZE1aaagcpXwfoa9R7zqdiiQHC9LT5j6ZcnsfY6P7", 
      "opPWXEj2p6MHCGfon4nZGVnG3zBXWY2CZtYVRRjVNDBvQPLxnUU", 
      "ooq8gZ1nKE5AqHuJYCjqEMkbYHgK2SDs9T2SZXDkJAZ196RKiBS", 
      "onqJPSCfU3BRzLesTnHHrbQn1FLAGpRCi7TRtxxiHbip9iHMWbU", 
      "onwg53FYDrfnnya3saqbrAEZUbnpTruMPTpqoKVuRazsf1Viwk5", 
      "onhFQfHozg6342FWHmneswFZRdoEuwvtfhmcpQQg1U9FsginVJv", 
      "opTn7nNd5vUBsex4a2bfR3RrZjUmkMeiAWEDttrrSEF3T1dGNZm", 
      "ooWkoM9xWNAd8EqbETpr1k5fEAuiQt598ugmLM54ZVNxjCbtGbp", 
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      "oosNr1vxSqq2CJtBx6w89JMwBQykN1eCZjRRMhcVBBYQB1e13iq", 
      "opTmRk498HdVZ9QQxMPRVbrastMCZmYTgZS7A6p8xK2J9Sh8J26", 
      "ooB3dC8hsr9ZXNDVHD6KtAkDKEke2UxS8BfmijiT3eWDYynWiuh", 
      "onpQSBSjVeSx1zRpFhcwCGmhhawy2Za6ur18RoSqTFKcFEFWmpg"}]]|>

Along with doing blockchain transactions and blockchain analytics with Wolfram Language, we’re additionally doing increasingly with computational contracts—for which the full-scale computational language character of the Wolfram Language provides distinctive alternatives (an instance being the creation of “oracles” primarily based on our computational data in regards to the world).

In Model 12.1 we launched ExternalStorageObject, initially supporting IPFS and Dropbox. In Model 12.3 we’ve added help for Amazon S3 (and, sure, you may retailer and retrieve an entire bucket of recordsdata at a time):

&#10005

ExternalStorageUpload["ExampleData/spikey2.png", "wolfram-bucket", 
 ExternalStorageBase -> "AmazonS3"]

A essential step in all types of exterior interactions is authentication. And in Model 12.3 we’ve added help for OAuth 2.0 workflows. You create a SecuredAuthenticationKey:

&#10005

SecuredAuthenticationKey[<|"Name" -> "Reddit",
  "OAuthType" -> "ThreeLegged",
  "OAuthVersion" -> "2.0",
  "ConsumerKey" -> "" (*Your key here*), 
  "ConsumerSecret" -> "" (*Your key here*), "ResponseType" -> "code", 
  "Scopes" -> {"read"}, "ScopeDelimiter" -> " ", 
  "VerifierInputFunction" -> "WolframConnectorChannel",
  "AccessTokenURL" -> "https://www.reddit.com/api/v1/access_token",
  "UserAuthorizationURL" -> 
   "https://www.reddit.com/api/v1/authorize",
  "AdditionalParameters" -> <|
    "AuthorizationRequest" -> {"duration" -> "permanent"}|>
  |>]

Then you can also make a request utilizing this key:

&#10005

URLRead["https://oauth.reddit.com/api/search_subreddits" , 
 Authentication -> %]

You’ll get a browser window that asks you to log in together with your account—and then you definately’ll be off and working.

For a lot of widespread exterior companies, now we have “pre-packaged” ServiceConnect connections. Usually these require authentication. And for OAuth-based APIs (like Reddit or Twitter) now we have our WolframConnector app that brokers the exterior a part of the authentication. A brand new function of Model 12.3 is that you would be able to additionally use your individual exterior app to dealer that authentication, so that you’re not restricted by the preparations made with the exterior service for the WolframConnector app.

Underneath the hood for every thing we’re speaking about right here is cryptography. And in Model 12.3 we’ve added some new cryptographic capabilities; specifically we now have help for all elliptic curves within the NIST Digital Signature FIPS 186-4 commonplace, in addition to for Edwards curves that will probably be a part of FIPS 186-5.

We’ve packaged all of this to make it very straightforward to create blockchain wallets, signal transactions, and encode knowledge for blockchains:

&#10005

BlockchainKeyEncode[PublicKey[
Association[
  "Type" -> "EdwardsCurve", "CurveName" -> "ed25519", 
   "PublicByteArray" -> 
   ByteArray[{129, 57, 198, 230, 91, 48, 63, 133, 232, 63, 173, 17, 
     49, 237, 190, 143, 151, 108, 127, 202, 73, 93, 64, 14, 198, 177, 
     194, 15, 13, 79, 120, 246}], 
   "PublicCurvePoint" -> {
    299335060271590132066951334928298030649197201001541795411746200767
72068584535, 
     53585483370699320092407628906864478900713122887718404470323110058
487397628289}]], "Deal with", BlockchainBase -> "Tezos"]

&#10005

BlockchainAddressData[%, "DelegateData", BlockchainBase -> "Tezos"]

And Now … NFTs! (December 2021)

One of many issues that’s occurred on the earth because the launch of Model 12.3 is the mainstreaming of the concept of NFTs. We’ve really had instruments for a number of years for supporting NFTs—and tokens on the whole—on blockchains. However in Model 13.0 we’ve added extra streamlined NFT instruments, notably within the context of our connection to the Cardano blockchain.

The essential thought of an NFT (“non-fungible token”) is to have a novel token that may be transferred between customers however not replicated. It’s like a coin, however each NFT will be distinctive. The blockchain gives a everlasting ledger of who owns what NFT. Whenever you switch an NFT what you’re doing is simply including one thing to the blockchain to report that transaction.

What can NFTs be used for? A lot of issues. For instance, we issued “NFT certificates” for individuals who “graduated” from our Summer season Faculty and Summer season Camp this yr. We additionally issued NFTs to report possession for some mobile automaton artworks we created in a livestream. And on the whole NFTs can be utilized as everlasting data for something: possession, credentials or only a commemoration of an achievement or occasion.

In a typical case, there’s a small “payload” for the NFT that goes instantly on the blockchain. If there are bigger belongings—like photos—these will get saved on some distributed storage system like IPFS, and the payload on the blockchain will include a pointer to them.

Right here’s an instance that makes use of a number of of our blockchain capabilities—in addition to the brand new connection to the Cardano blockchain—to retrieve from IPFS the picture related to an NFT that we minted a number of weeks in the past:

How are you going to mint such an NFT your self? The Wolfram Language has the instruments to do it. ResourceFunction["MintNFT"] within the Wolfram Operate Repository gives one widespread workflow (particularly for the CIP 25 Cardano NFT commonplace)—and there’ll be extra coming.

The complete story of blockchain beneath the “pure client” degree is sophisticated and technical. However the Wolfram Language gives a uniquely streamlined technique to deal with it, primarily based on symbolic representations of blockchain constructs, that may instantly be manipulated utilizing all the usual capabilities of the Wolfram Language. There are additionally many alternative blockchains, with completely different setups. However by way of plenty of effort that we’ve made prior to now few years, we’ve been in a position to create a uniform framework that interoperates between completely different blockchains whereas nonetheless permitting entry to all of their particular options. So now you simply set a unique BlockchainBase (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Cardano, Tezos, ARK, Bloxberg, …) and also you’re able to work together with a unique blockchain.

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